While infants and very young children are unable to talk about their own thoughts and behaviors, older children and adults are often asked to use language to discuss their thoughts and knowledge about the world. In fact, these verbal paradigms are among the most prevalent in psychological research. For example, a researcher might present a child with a vignette or short story that describes a moral dilemma, and the child would be asked to express their own thoughts and beliefs (Walrath, 2011). Children, for example, might react to the following: however, the propensity to focus on forms of physical consent is strong. The forms are quite easy to verify and their use is relatively easy to document. Two recent research ethics reports, however, felt that it was necessary to emphasize in their recommendations that informed consent should be understood as a process and not just as a form (NBAC, 2001b); IOM, 2003(a). A third report, focusing on social and behavioural research, concluded that IRBs focused too much on the declaration of consent and did not calibrate their attention to the level of risk of the research (NRC, 2003). In other words, they do not adapt the intensity and specificity of their verification of documents and consent processes to the risk posed by the research. The recommendations at the end of this chapter suggest some possibilities for drawing the attention of investigators and the BRI to the process of seeking parental and child consent to participation in research. With respect to confidentiality, Hurley and Underwood (2002) found that significant second-year minorities did not understand the ”subtle points of confidentiality” in their study, despite repeated statements in different contexts that information from their study would not be shared with family or school staff (p. 140).
The CM1 and 6th grade students did better. In their study of children aged 5 to 12 years, Abramovitch and colleagues (1991) also found younger children who were more uncertain about confidentiality. A proposal or model for authorization and approval will clearly not be suitable for all parents and children, and some research contexts (e.g. B acute serious illnesses) complicate reasoned thinking and decision-making. Some themes that should be considered for the investigation are: Recommendation 4.1: The informed consent process should be an ongoing interactive dialogue between research staff and research participants, including the disclosure and exchange of relevant information, the discussion of that information, and the assessment of the individual`s understanding for discussion. . . .