The Simla Agreement, signed on July 2, 1972 by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was much more than a peace treaty designed to reverse the consequences of the 1971 war (i.e., provoke the withdrawal of troops and an exchange of prisoners of war). It was a comprehensive plan for good-neighbourly relations between India and Pakistan. Under the Simla Agreement, the two countries pledged to renounce the conflicts and confrontations that had affected relations in the past and to work towards the creation of lasting peace, friendship and cooperation. The Simla Agreement contains a set of guiding principles on which India and Pakistan have agreed and which both parties would adhere to in the management of their mutual relations. These emphasize respect for the territorial integrity and sovereignty of the other; non-interference in the internal affairs of each individual; Respect for the unity of each individual, political independence; sovereign equality; and renounce hostile propaganda. However, the following principles of the agreement are particularly noteworthy: the agreement was the result of the determination of both countries to ”end the conflict and confrontation that have so far affected their relations.” It has devised the measures to be taken for greater normalization of mutual relations and has also defined the principles that should determine their future relations.    This agreement, popularly known as the Simla Pact, a born out of the 1971 war between the two countries over developments in Pakistan`s eastern wing. The purpose of the agreement was to establish the principles that would govern their future relations. It also provided for measures for further normalization of bilateral relations. Most importantly, he urged the two countries to ”settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations.” (iii) Withdrawals shall commence upon entry into force of this Agreement and shall be concluded within 30 days.  Under this agreement, the two countries, India and Pakistan, had agreed to refrain from threats and violence in violation of the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir. The agreement did not prevent relations between the two countries from deteriorating until the armed conflict, the most recent of which was the Kargil War in 1999.
In Operation Meghdoot in 1984, India seized the entire inhospitable Siachen Glacier region, where the boundary was not clearly defined in the agreement (perhaps because the area was considered too sterile to be contested); this was considered by Pakistan to be a violation of the Simla Agreement. Most of the subsequent deaths in the Siachen conflict were due to natural disasters, . B to avalanches in 2010, 2012 and 2016. For Prelims and Hands: Has Simla Agreement – Origin, Effects and Results been successful? The agreement emphasizes respect for each other`s sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity. It also mentions non-interference in everyone`s internal affairs and the rejection of hostile propaganda. This Agreement shall be subject to ratification by both countries in accordance with their respective constitutional procedures and shall enter into force from the date of exchange of instruments of ratification.  The agreement was mutually agreed and signed after the 1971 Indo-Pak War, after which East Pakistan was liberated, leading to the formation of Bangladesh. .