S.K. Sinha said that Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru had informed the Indian delegation prior to the Karachi meeting, telling them that the UN resolution recognized the legality of Kashmir`s accession to India and that, therefore, any ”no man`s land” would belong to India. The Pakistani delegation should provide the UN Commission with proof of its actual positions of control over the entire territory they claim. Sinha explained that, on the basis of this principle, the agreement delimited several hundred square kilometres of territory on the Indian side, although there were no Indian troops in the area.  As hostilities extend beyond the Kashmir ceasefire line, the Secretary-General has decided to establish an administrative unit of the UNITED Nations MISSION, the United Nations India-Pakistan Observer Mission (UNIPOM), as a temporary measure to monitor the ceasefire along the Indo-Pakistan border outside the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Another anomaly appeared at the southern end of the ceasefire line in Jammu. From the end of the ceasefire line to the international border between Indian and Pakistani Punjab, there was a gap of more than 200 km, covered by a recognized ”provincial border” between Pakistani Punjab and the spring state of Jammu and Kashmir. India has generally referred to the border as an ”international border,” while Pakistan has referred to it as a ”border” or ”labour border.”  At a joint meeting on 25 January, the parties, under the auspices of the Secretary-General`s representative, agreed on the ground rules for the implementation of the withdrawal and withdrawal plan. The plan should be implemented in two stages and the good offices of UNMOGIP and UNIPOM should be requested to ensure that the agreed action is fully implemented. In the event of disagreement between the parties, General Marambio`s decision would be final and binding on both sides. The good offices of UNMOGIP and UNIPOM were also requested for the implementation of the second phase of the Agreement, as well as the good offices of the Secretary-General`s representative with regard to the withdrawal of troops. In addition, A.G.
Noorani believes that a lasting and guaranteed formal ceasefire must be the first step in the peace pyramid, with confidence-building measures (CBM) expected to be the second and Kashmir/terrorism the last step towards peace between the two. The formalization of the 2003 ceasefire would effectively mean that India and Pakistan will conclude a new ceasefire agreement written on the LOC, the labour border and the AGPL, with clear rules and rules on what constitutes a violation of the ceasefire and how it will be dealt with if it occurs. According to international ceasefire standards, the most effective instruments for maintaining peace are the expanded demilitarized zones along the borders, the presence of neutral observers and joint dispute resolution commissions. Indeed, there is already a formal ceasefire agreement between India and Pakistan in the Karachi Agreement signed on 27 July 1949 between India and Pakistan. It drew the original ceasefire line (CFL) between Jammu and Indian Kashmir and Pakistan-controlled cashmere Azad. But when India and Pakistan entered the wars of 1965 and 1971 and signed two different treaties after those two wars, the 1949 Karachi Agreement became almost superfluous, with the exception of the borders between Azad Kashmir and the Jammu and Kashmir Indians. ”Indian occupying forces along the LoC and Working Boundary have continuously attacked civilized areas with artillery fire, large-calibre mortars and automatic weapons. This year, India has so far committed 1,595 ceasefire violations, leading to 14 shahadats [martyrdom] and serious wounding of 121 innocent civilians,” he added.